This Mindset by Carol Dweck summary is your helpful guide to developing a growth mindset and unlocking your full potential. The book focuses on the idea that the world is divided between individuals who embrace learning and people who resist it and how this distinction influences various aspects of life, including personal perspectives and relationships.
The book, written by Carol S. Dweck, a psychology professor, draws from research and real-life examples to examine the advantages and drawbacks of each mindset. It features stories of famous figures like Michael Jordan, Lee Iacocca, John McEnroe, Wilma Rudolph, and Babe Ruth.
The author highlights how different mindsets can affect various aspects of a person’s life and how adjusting one’s mindset can lead to growth. Although the book primarily focuses on management and leadership, it also discusses the influence of mentality on other types of interactions.
Mindset by Carol Dweck Summary and Key Points
Fixed vs. Growth Mindset
Experts have maintained for a long time that our unique personalities result from a combination of upbringing, physiology, and genetics. But now, they’re saying that there’s more to it than that. It turns out that whether we have a “fixed” or “growth” mindset has a lot to do with how intelligent, thoughtful, and adventurous we are.
People with a “fixed mindset” are confident in their abilities and refuse to consider alternative points of view. They have a fixed notion that one’s character and IQ are immutable, leading them to feel a need to constantly prove themselves. Individuals with a fixed mindset typically adopt this point of view at a young age, mainly due to the guidance they receive from authority figures like teachers or parents.
Those with a fixed mindset have a lowered sense of self-worth and see every failure as a reflection of their value. They assume that their characteristics and relationships with others are permanent and unalterable. This outlook can lead to feelings of rejection and inadequacy if a failure occurs. Fixed mindset, people work hard to disguise their shortcomings yet feel that their connections, traits, and partners are unchangeable.
Those who embrace a “growth mindset” are confident to alter or enhance their inherent traits through time. They believe the future will allow them to develop even under challenging circumstances. They see themselves as always having room to develop further.
They think they can get stronger and strive to learn more. They don’t get discouraged when things don’t go their way; instead, they use it as an opportunity to grow. This mindset helps them stay calm and motivated, even when faced with tough challenges.
People can change their mindset by learning new skills. We can be taught to respond differently, take on challenges, and think in new ways. For example, athletes with a growth mindset viewed challenging themselves as an opportunity to develop positive character traits.
Instead of focusing solely on the outcome, they enjoyed the process and put distractions aside. They accepted failure as part of the learning experience and understood that hard work was the key to progress. On the other hand, those athletes who had a fixed mindset felt constant pressure to prove they were the best. When they didn’t win, they felt disheartened.
Why Talent Doesn’t Matter as Much as You Think
The author says that many people think being smart or naturally talented is the most important thing for success, but that’s not true. Instead, hard work, not giving up, and having a good attitude are more important than how smart you are. It’s like a race where the person who tries the hardest and doesn’t give up usually wins, even if they didn’t start out as the fastest runner.
Your effort is a crucial determinant of success. While innate ability may give some people an initial advantage, effort, and persistence ultimately lead to achievement. Numerous studies are revealing the extent of effort, including research showing that students with a growth mindset are likelier to put in the effort and achieve higher grades.
Also, the idea that successful people are “naturals” who excel at their chosen fields effortlessly is a myth and is harmful. Successful people have tried to develop their abilities over time.
Your mindset is critical in determining whether you succeed or fail. People with a fixed mindset are more likely to give up when faced with a challenge, assuming their innate abilities are not up to the task. On the other hand, those with a growth mindset are more likely to persist through setbacks and use failure as an opportunity to learn and grow.
Challenge is also critical to success, and we must stretch our abilities and develop new skills when challenged. Those with a growth mindset are more likely to seek out challenges, while those with a fixed mindset may avoid them for fear of failure.
How we praise ourselves, and others can significantly impact our mindset and achievement. The term “process praise” (i.e., praise that focuses on effort, persistence, and strategy) is more effective than “person praise” (i.e., praise that focuses on innate ability). We can foster a growth mindset and encourage continued effort and learning by praising effort and perseverance.
Mindset and Leadership
A leader with a fixed mindset can put their company in the wrong spot. One researcher found that execs too wrapped up in their reputations can hurt the company. For example, Lee Iacocca saved Chrysler, but then he was more focused on himself – and the company declined.
A researcher found that those who think of themselves as leaders in their fields or creative masterminds don’t make the best team leaders. Albert Dunlap had much to prove when he arrived at Sunbeam in 1996. He cut the employees in half, and the stock went up but was too high to sell. He didn’t like being challenged, so he got rid of anyone who opposed him and made up some figures to make the company look better. Sadly, it all fell apart in three years, and he was kicked out.
Leaders open to learning and development are on the other end of the spectrum. For instance, Jack Welch 1980 took over GE when it was worth $14 billion and grew the company to a $490 billion value within 20 years.
Welch took the top spot at GE by being humble and showing he was open to learning. He involved employees from all company levels and even went so far as to directly meet with people on the assembly line to hear their thoughts.
Once, he spoke to several GE executives and inquired about their objectives and initiatives. A month later, the club president told everyone they would start volunteering in their communities and let anyone join. Fast-forward 20 years, and the club has an incredible 42,000 members.
Welch eliminated four managers who had achieved their targets but didn’t embody GE’s values. He made a pricey blunder when GE purchased Kidder, Peabody & Co., but he learned a lesson from it. The purchase brought GE back millions of dollars and showed Welch the difference between being overconfident and failing.
True leaders are developed over time, not born. Instead, great leaders are made through hard work and determination to learn new things. Companies should recognize the potential in individuals and create learning opportunities for them to develop their skills. It’s a win-win situation for everyone involved, as employees can advance and make more money. The company benefits from having a better-prepared workforce.
How Mindset Affects Relationships
Relationship dynamics are affected differently by people with fixed and growth mindsets. People with fixed mindsets crave impulsive friendships and spectacular breakups. They take a long time to forgive because they fear being rejected for showing weakness.
People with fixed worldviews are doomed to criticize their partners for relationship problems. They are quick to shift the responsibility away from themselves. An extreme instance of competitiveness is when one individual begins to take credit for the other’s successes and becomes the other’s identity.
How Mindset Affects Learning and Development
Setting an activity for students and explaining how it will be measured can shape their mindset. Two sets of students were given by researchers a challenge and said to one group they would be judged by how much they already knew (creating a fixed mindset). The other group was told to use the task to develop new skills (encouraging a growth mindset). At first, neither group met the goal. Still, eventually, the growth mindset group motivated each other and surpassed the other group.
Talking to students about their mindset and teaching them how to improve it is beneficial for boosting their self-esteem. It’s important to show students that you care about their progress and are focused on helping them reach their fullest potential.
Teachers should be mindful of their language when praising students. Blindly praising them can be counter-productive, leading to mixed messages regarding their learning speed, study habits, or ability.
Instead, teachers should recognize the pupils’ hard work and achievements to encourage them to take up more complex tasks. Even seemingly innocuous comments like “Your intelligence allows you to pick up new information rapidly” can be misinterpreted by kids to mean that taking time to learn is negative.
It’s not a good idea to prevent kids from failing. It’s normal to not be the best at something, and it’s likely to happen a lot. Suppose parents only focus on being the best. In that case, they aren’t giving their child an alternative to aim for if they don’t win, which might make them blame someone else, take away the importance of the activity, or create a negative outcome.
These are strategies for shifting from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset:
The Power of “Yet”
Sometimes, when we face a complex problem, we might want to give up and think we’ll never be able to do it. But if we add the word “yet” to the end of our sentences, it can help us change our thinking from “I can’t do this” to “I can’t do this yet.” This means we might not be able to do it right now, but with practice and hard work, we will eventually be able to do it.
Further reading: The Power of Yet: The Mindset Hack That Can Transform Your Life
Sometimes when we try to do something, we might not do it perfectly the first time and make mistakes, and some people might think that means they are not good at it. But people who think differently know that it’s okay to make mistakes and that they can learn from them.
This can help them to become better at what they are doing. To make sure they learn from their mistakes, they need to think about what they did wrong and how they can improve the next time they try.
Some people think that facing challenges is a good thing because it helps them to learn new things and become better. But others might be afraid to try new things or face challenges because they think they might fail.
If we want a growth mindset, we should try to do difficult things and push ourselves out of our comfort zone. If we make mistakes or things don’t go as planned, it’s okay, and we can learn from those mistakes and become better at what we’re doing.
Seek Out Feedback
People with a growth mindset are happy to get feedback or advice from others because they see it as a way to learn and improve. If we want a growth mindset, we should ask other people for feedback on what we’re doing and how we’re doing it. We can use the feedback to find out what we can do better and work on them immediately.